Venus Calendar Rock Art
Venus calendar in rock art, Negev Desert Israel
One of the earliest images of Venus found engraved on Negev Desert rock art. Who engraved it and why? In Mesopotamia Venus played a major role in the ancient drama and stands equal to the sun and the moon celestial glory, symbolizing the image of the Great Goddess Ishtar/Inanna. Her appearances as the Morning Star and the Evening Star correspond to her dual character as the goddess of love and war.
The Mesopotamians celebrated Venus’s appearance every eight years, an accurate and reliable cycle when she rose as a morning star near the Spring Equinox. The Venus omen collection from Assyria named “Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa” dated 1650BC, teaches us about the meticulous Venus observations. Venus’s disappearances caused great concern for the priests. Whether this heralds peace or war? Whether it was a sign of drought and famine? “… Venus disappeared again in the West – the heart of the country is happy. In Nissan, on the twenty-seventh, Venus disappeared in the west … The country has riots, the harvest was very successful”.
Venus’s importance was more than just reciting astrological omens; its predictable cycles elevated her to the sun and the moon ranks creating a harmonizing heavenly calendar that verified the sun and moon cycle.
Long before the Mesopotamians adapted the Venus cycle from their neighbors the Elamites, located between Iraq and Persia, decoded Venus’s synodic period of 584 days already at 4000 BC. This important calendar knowledge spread out West and East reaching far into Greece (Iurii Mosenkis), Central and Southern America quickly adapted by the Mayan and Aztec Indians. Venus’ two celestial cycles can be used to create a long and accurate calendar. The first Venus cycle creates an octagon and the second cycle creates a pentagon (Fig.1). Both have become the symbols of Venus in the ancient world. (see Asia Haleem 2013)
The octagonal cycle occurs every 8 solar years when Venus completes her long travel around the sun and returns to the same point in the sky where the cycle began. In the pentagonal cycle: the Earth, Venus, and the Sun are in line five times during the eight years cycle. The distance between the pentacle vertices is 584 days. Both cycles have become Venus symbols in rock art in the shape of a star either pentagonal or octagonal.
Venus 8 Year Calendar, Negev Desert Rock Art
The rock art, from the Negev Desert, creates an ingenious Venus 8-year calendar counter, Fig.3. The scene includes all the elements needed to count the passage of time by following the months and years. The wheel with 12 cavities used as a monthly counter. The 8 branches plant, on left, counts the years. The counter works as follows: A stone added to one wheel cavity for every lunar month that passed. When the wheel fills with twelve stones, it marks the completion of one lunar year. The wheel is then cleared and a stone is added to one of the 8 plant branches. A new count of twelve months begins, until all the plant branches filled with stones; which marks Venus 8-year cycle completion. In this scene on the right side, Venus riding an imaginative hybrid animal, with features of camel and horse, re-enters the heavenly gate to begin a new 8-year cycle journey.
Other engraved Venus cycle counters, of the type described in Fig.3, prove its utilization in the Negev Desert rock art. Their simpler engraving contains only the years and months counters without fancy decoration. Fig.4 displays an 8 years cycle counter from two different rock art. The left side, in each counter, counts the 8 years and the right side counts the 12 months.
Venus Synodic Counter, Negev Desert Rock Art
Venus Synodic cycle is a successive alignment of Earth, Sun, and Venus. Five such alignments occur during 8 years cycle, creating a five-point star, see Fig.1. This predictable and repeating cycle, easily visible sky event, utilized as a calendar.
Already in 4000BC, the Elamite calendar utilized the Venus synodic cycle, which lasts an average of 577 to 592 days. They divided the Venus synodic cycle into 72 lots of 8 days each. At the count end, one week with up to 8 days were added for a complete cycle count. The rock art, in Fig.6, from the Negev Desert Israel, is a simple and effective counter of Venus’s Synodic cycle. It is made of three sun symbols having 8, 9, and 8 rays each (from left to right) that are used to count the synodic calendar days.
The count begins from the left sun where at each day a stone is placed one ray until full. Then a stone added to the middle sun with clearing the left sun. The process continues until all the rays in the middle sun are filled which completes the count of 72. Then a stone added to the rightmost sun and the process continues filling all the rays on the right sun. This final stone placement results in simple math of (8X9X8=576). With the addition of days until the Earth, Sun, and Venus aligned the cycle completed exactly as the Elamite scheme mentioned above.
The yearly mismatch between the lunar and solar calendars amounted to 11 days a year. Such a great difference caused havoc for the Mesopotamian administration de-synchronizing all social and regulatory activities. The solution was to use the Venus cycle to certify the lunar calendar. When Venus aligned with the Sun, and Earth once every eight years the solar calendar match was verified.
Venus’s influence appears in many rock art in the Negev Desert especially as a symbol of 5 point star. The Venus rock art shows that people living in the Negev Desert adjusted their calendar by Venus cycles. It proves that there was a connection between people living in the Negev and Mesopotamia and that ideas crossed a thousand miles into the desolate Negev Desert region all the way from the edge of the Fertile Crescent.
Asia Haleem. (2013) The Venus Cycle and Venus worship in the Ancient Near East
Tsikritis M. (2015) Astronomical and mathematical knowledge and calendars during the early Helladic Era in Aegean “frying pan” vessels
Nicola Scafetta (2014) The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system
Iurii Mosenkis Minoan exact science: SACRAL ASTRONOMY
Yehuda Rotblum (2018) Rock Art in Israel
More deciphering, in a new book Rock Art in Israel, available online.
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