Ship Afterlife Journey
Afterlife Journey, the Negev Desert Ship Rock Art
The afterlife journey ship myth describes the soul’s journey to heaven. The concept originated in Egyptian belief that spread throughout the Western world firming the ideas of the eternal world, the underworld, and soul rebirth. Many Negev Desert rock art scenes show floating ships as if the arid desert is full of waterways. Archaeological research tells us that these are not earthly scenes they belong to the realm of belief. These imaginary ships are not navigating real water they are sailing the celestial waters. Some describe a sun journey and others sail to the afterlife zone, the land of the dead transporting the souls to Eden.
Research shows that Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, Roman, and Norse cultures described in their iconography, ritual texts, and burial customs the arduous journey through the underworld. Much archeological evidence left by these cultures shows that passage through the underworld’s vast water was a challenge. Man imagination invented a solution for this task: a boat, a solar barque in Egypt, which could magically cross the underworld’s precarious waters.
Failure to cross the underworld waters meant that the souls will sail into oblivion an idea no person can accept. In Egyptian culture, the boat had to cross the Nile to the “Beautiful West” accompanied by a ferryman named “Who Sees Behind Him”. In Greek culture, the boat crossed the river Styx aided by the ferryman Charon.
Abundant archaeological research, especially from Egypt and the Norse cultures, provides many examples of the afterlife ship. Some examples illustrated in Fig.1, show the underworld ship rock art from the Negev Desert, Egypt, and Scandinavia. The ship sails the upper world crossing the celestial waters following the sun path. The flipped ship signifies an underworld journey. The ships carry the dead souls, represented by the lines drawn on the ship described as “shade of a deceased” (Golan A. 1991). The souls traveling the sun path wishing to be resurrected the same way the sun does. The boat head in scene2 is of a bird shape signifying the ability to move in water and air. In scene4 a boat shaped grave provides the soul a means to commence the afterlife journey immediately at burial time.
The Negev Desert Ship/Boat Rock Art
Compared to ship designs from Egypt or Scandinavia the Negev Desert ships are very simple. Very few details decorate the scene with just enough details suggesting the ship outline with hints of bird features. The vertically flipped boats signify sailing the underworld. Sometimes it’s even hard to recognize the ship but repetitive scenes in many rock art reveal the artist’s concept. It’s a ship!
The ship sails in pairs one being a night ship, the other a day ship, they are engraved either in a convoy or in parallel. The ship orientation quote clarifies the meaning, Book of the Dead ch 151, “Thy right eye is the Solar Night Barque, thy left eye is the Solar Day Barque ” (Hartwig 2002).
Afterlife Journey, Negev Desert Rock Art
Fig.3, rock art from Negev Desert illustrates quite figuratively the soul travel by ship and a bird, both needed to complete the afterlife journey. The large bird with stretched wings, in blue, travels the air and the ship, in red, travels the underworld and celestial water, the sky. The souls transfer from the bird to the ship that steers them beyond the sun for the journey completion and resurrection.
Complete Ship Journey, Negev Desert Rock Art
Fig.4 illustrates the soul’s voyage aftermath of a ship sailing in the upper and lower world. The journey essentially follows the sun’s complete path through the lower and upper world. The journey begins at sunrise showing a ship (symbol 1) carrying the souls (these are the sticks attached to the ship). The ship’s thick outlines indicate its vigorous strength as the journey commences rising to the upper world. It continues (symbol 2 turned upsidedown) in the upper world along the sun path (symbol 3 the cross) the place of resurrection and soul rest.
The ship disembarks its soul cargo and returns empty to the lower world, with the sun at its head (symbol 4). It is filled again with souls waiting, at sunset at the bottom, for a renewed journey (symbol 5). The ship continues its course through the underworld, crossing the gray line, a natural rock crack extending across that symbolically separates the living and the dead worlds. Its course passes the two dots (symbol 7), a known symbol for the twin stars, considered the underworld gate guardians standing at the entrance to the heavenly river, the Milky Way, that leads the souls to the afterlife.
Man’s imagination has no boundary and when reality exhaust a situation that extends beyond the real world borders the brain taps its resources and provides a perfect solution for the unknown. Such is the travel through the unchartered underworld that the souls navigate to reach their final destination. In ancient thought, the earth was surrounded, on all sides, by water up in the skies and down in the underworld located deep below the earth. Crossing such a realm of water and air requires help from the waterbird, boats, and fish. symbols that recur frequently in the afterlife journey scenes.
What happens after death was a major dilemma now and of course in ancient times. No one came back, yet, from death to tell us about this mystery. The unknown creates a fertile ground for imaginative scenarios such that no one can disprove and therefore it flourishes. The mind has no boundaries and when it reaches the borders of far and unexplored scenarios, it creates a narrative with an accurate map for the afterlife journey as if entrenched in its memories cells. No living mind visited the mysterious unexplored underworld, as described by ancient myths and pictures in every culture. But, imagination expanded the earthly boundaries and provided many solutions for this last journey.
Ballard, C. 2003 The ship as a symbol in the prehistory
Golan A. 1991. Myth and Symbol
Hartwig A. 2002 Funerary Boats and Boat Pits of the Old Kingdom
KRISTIANSEN, K. 2010. The sun journey in Indo-European mythology and Bronze Age rock art.
Kaul, F. 1998. Ships on bronzes: a study in Bronze Age religion and iconography.
Lankester, F. 2012. Predynastic & Pharaonic era Rock-Art in Egypt’s Central Eastern Desert
Radwan, A. Boats in the Underworld of ancient Egypt and other cultures
More deciphering, in a new book Rock Art in Israel, available online.
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Yehuda Rotblum 2019