Fertility Rituals in Ancient World
Copyright © 2018 by Yehuda Rotblum
It was natural to relate the heavenly pairing of sky god with earth goddess to induce fertility. The celestial pairing found its way on earth as rituals of sexual nature intended to renew the powers of fertility. Divine fertility was the equivalent of human fertility performed in the temples. The Bible refers to them as ‘Qadesh’ or ‘the blessed one’. Females represented the earth goddess and the kings or high priest represented god where the entire ceremony designed to stimulate the gods to support earth fertility.
New Year ceremonies in Sumer, springtime at New Year, included the rites of holy matrimony, which imitated the mating act between the sky and the earth goddess. The king represented god Dumuzi who mated with the high priestess representing the sky goddess. In Egypt, Pharaoh scattered his semen down the Nile to increase the land fertility. In Canaan, the ritual of Baal and Asherah celebrated, though condemned by the prophets: ‘On the mountaintops they offer sacrifice and on the hills, they burn incense, beneath oak and poplar and terebinth, because of their pleasant shade. Therefore your daughters prostitute themselves and your daughters-in-law commit adultery’ (Hosea 4:13)
The Sacred Marriage
Fertility played a significant role in ancient times; its importance increased with the development of early agricultural. The sacred marriage was one of the rituals employed in fertility festivities. It was imagined as a marriage between Heaven and Earth when the “male” heaven fertilized mother “earth” causing the fresh green vegetation to spring from her.
Fig. 1 Sacred Marriage, Negev Desert rock art
Rain an important fertility ingredient provided the life essence for all crops, it stirred the nature mysterious virility powers. Fig.1, a Negev rock art, depicts a union of gods that are the cause of rain. The two standing figures, a man, and a woman are gods; as can be seen from their feathered bodies, features of a bird, which are early god symbols. They produced the massive rain, represented by a dotted cloud, answering people prayers. They are extending their hands welcoming the sacred rain pouring on earth a promise of the fertile season.
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