Fertility Rituals in Negev Desert rock art
It seems natural for early man to relate the heavenly mating of sky god with the earth goddess as a catalyst for increased fertility. The celestial pairing of the two found its way in rituals of sexual nature intended to induce nature powers. Acts of divine fertility performed in temples in front of the gods. Females represented the earth goddess and the king or high priest represented the male god and their union enacted to stimulate fertility over the land. The Bible refers to these women as ‘Qadesh’ or ‘the blessed one’.
New Year ceremonies in Sumer, Autumn at New Year, included the rites of holy matrimony, which imitated the mating act between the sky and the earth goddess. The king represented god Dumuzi who mated with the high priestess representing the sky goddess. In Egypt, Pharaoh scattered his semen down the Nile to increase land fertility. In Canaan, the ritual of Baal and Asherah celebrated, though condemned by the prophets: ‘On the mountaintops they offer sacrifice and on the hills, they burn incense, beneath oak and poplar and terebinth, because of their pleasant shade. Therefore your daughters prostitute themselves and your daughters-in-law commit adultery’ (Hosea 4:13)
The Sacred Marriage
Fertility played a significant role in ancient times; its importance increased with the development of early agricultural. Its purpose was to ensure nature fruitfulness it included: the making of autumn rains, the growth of the crops, and the multiplication of domestic animals.
The sacred marriage union considered a step toward divine fertility and was one of the rituals employed in festivities. It imagined as a marriage between Heaven and Earth when the “male” heaven fertilized mother “earth” assuring the fresh green vegetation to spring from her. Rain considered as a seed from God fertilizing mother earth that provided the life essence for all crops, it stirred nature mysterious virility powers.
Fig.1, a Negev rock art, depicts a union of gods that pray for rain. The two standing figures, a man, and a woman are gods as their feathered bodies indicate, features of a bird an early god symbols. They produced the massive rain, represented by a dotted cloud, answering people prayers. They are extending their hands welcoming the sacred rain pouring on earth a promise for fertile season.
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