Fish Underworld Journey
Fish Underworld Journey in Rock Art
Deciphering Rock Art from the Negev Desert.
The analysis of an ancient text, rock art iconography, reveals a deep belief in the afterlife from the Bronze age. Much is written about a horse, a dog, a bird, a sun, a ship, acting as an afterlife journey soul guides. We have a record in rock art, from the Negev Desert and the world, that illustrate these psychopomps participating in an underworld journey (see Birds Afterlife Journey). But very few describe a journey guided by a fish. Over millennia’s the small Negev Desert, located between Egypt and Israel, visited by many major cultures (see Rock Art in Israel): Egyptian, Sumerian, Greek, Roman. They all left their mark by engraving the desert rocks with their beliefs wishing the departing souls a successful afterlife journey.
In ancient thought, the earth surrounded by water on all sides, including the bottom. The underworld located deep down below the earth, called by the Sumerian the “lower water”, and some imagine it at the edge of the world beyond the Ocean.
Many hinders awaited the departing souls in their way in the lower waters. Darkness, many road forks, gates, hungry and dangerous animals awaited to devour the innocent souls entering the dark and unknown netherworld. The physical barriers of vast land, water, air, and the underworld void require faithful soul guides. For this uncharted journey, the soul needs to perform magic to cross the dangerous void. It needs a guide! Confirmation of these faithful psychopomps such as a horse, a bird, a sun, a ship, and surprisingly even a fish, appears in Negev Desert rock art.
Souls Ship Description
Fig.1 shows the underworld ship rock art (engraved upside down meaning sailing in the underworld) from the Negev Desert and the Aegean ship (not a rock art) pulled by a fish. The ships transport the souls, represented by the flipped vertical lines, to the underworld (Golan A. 1991).
The circle in scene1 represents a sun leading the upside-down boat on a night journey. The Aegean ship scene2, added here in order to illustrate that the idea of a fish as a psychopomp existed in other cultures, is attacked by a huge snake a typical scenario for underworld journey; the souls are situated under the snake. In scene3 the boat, upside down (red), comprised of the horizontal line on top, that ends as a fork carrying the souls attached to the ship. Under the boat, a bird is flying (blue) with stretched wings bringing more souls for the final journey.
Underworld Journey Fish Rock Art
The fish, in its natural habitat the underworld water, acted as a guide and carried the wandering souls through the underworld maze. Fig2 and Fig.3 illustrate two rock art from the Negev Desert demonstrating the fish underworld journey. The symbols in Fig.2 rock art: symbol3 the fish carrying the souls engraved as the sticks on its back symbolically representing the soul’s shade, symbol2 the crack in the rock symbolizing the exit from the underworld, symbol1 a bird (tri-fingered ) enters the underworld to bring more souls for the journey continuation.
In Fig.3, the fish, symbol4, carries the souls (the stick figures on the fish top symbol3) advances toward the sun (symbol2). The snake (symbol1) attacks the sun to hinder its progress. This scene reminds the sun’s underworld journey described in the Egyptian myth. (see Sun Journey).
Golan A. (1991) Myth and Symbol
Kristiansen K. (2018) The winged triad in Bronze Age symbolism: birds and their feet
Salimbeti A. (2014) The Greek Age of Bronze Ship
More deciphering, in a new book Rock Art in Israel, available online.
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