Fertility scenes in Rock Art
Fertility scenes in the Negev Desert Rock Art
The fertility rituals scenes deciphered here were influenced by the Egyptian myth of Osiris. These scenes re-enacted, symbolically, sexual acts as reproductive processes of man, animals, and land. Spreading semen over land or water ceremony was practiced in ancient Egypt to promote land fertility.
It was common in the ancient world to describe nature forces by their astronomical symbol and attribute them with the power to change the seasons. The fertility season, in the Negev Desert, coincided with the appearance of the winter constellations. These include the ibex and the dog that represented the winter constellations of Orion (the ibex) and Canis Major (the dog).
The Egyptian Osiris Myth
The Egyptian myth tells that Osiris was killed by his brother Set who fancied the throne. Set chopped Osiris into fourteen pieces and threw them into the Nile River. Isis, Osiris’s wife, wandered the world and assembled Osiris’ body, and inserted his semen into her thus giving birth to Horus. The Egyptian Pyramid Texts state it unequivocally: “Your sister Isis comes to you [Osiris] rejoicing for love of you. You have placed her on your phallus and your seed issues into her….”.
With his revival, Osiris symbolized the resurrection and re-generation god. His death represented the yearly drought, while his miraculous rebirth with the Nile River flooding represented the agricultural magic in Egypt. To assure fertility Pharaoh performed a ceremony, which involved masturbating at the riverbank spreading his semen throughout the Nile River’s waters fertilizing the river banks.
Osiris and Isis Celestial gods
The ancients Egyptians mapped the stars in different seasons and Osiris and Isis have been clearly represented by Orion and Canis Major constellations, as shown in Fig2. In the Negev Desert rock art, they portrayed as an ibex followed by a dog a symbolic sky view of Orion and Canis Major constellation arrival announcing the fertile season.
The sniffing dog scene in Negev Rock Art
The rock art presented, Fig.4, here illustrates the fertility ritual recreating the Egyptian myth of Isis reviving Osiris. It visually records sexual attributes symbolizing land fertility in concert with the ibex and the dog (Osiris and Isis) constellations (Orion and Canis Major) appearance in the fertile season. In this scene, the dog symbolically entices the ibex by sniffing him emulating Isis reviving Osiris. As a result, the ibex ejects a spray of semen, notice the ibex phallus, and the “wet” patch underneath. Above them, you can see the formation of rainstorms and clouds illustrated by the engraved patches and dots.
More deciphering, in a new book Rock Art in Israel, available online.
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Ardakani ( 2016) An Evaluation of the Historical Importance of Fertility and Its Reflection in Ancient Mythology
BOTICA (2013) Weather, Agriculture, and religion in the Ancient Near East and in the Old Testament