Ship Underworld Journey
Underworld Journey, the Negev Desert Ship Rock Art
You don’t expect to see sailing ships or boats in the dry desert. Surprisingly, many rock art in the Negev desert describes a scene with floating ships as if the arid desert is full of waterways. These are not earthly scenes they belong to the realm of belief. These imaginary ships are not navigating real water they are sailing the celestial waters. Some describe a sun journey and others sail to the afterlife zone, the land of the dead transporting the souls to Eden.
Man imagination has no boundary and when reality exhaust a situation beyond the real world the brain taps into its resources and provides a perfect solution for the unknown. Such is the travel through the unchartered underworld that the souls navigate to reach its final destination. In ancient thought, the earth was surrounded, in all sides, by water including the underworld located deep down below the earth. The travel through such a realm required crossing water and air and therefore symbols such as the water bird, boat, and fish recur frequently in such scenes.
Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, Roman, and Norse cultures describe in their iconography, ritual texts, and burial customs the arduous journey through the underworld. Much archeological evidence left by these cultures shows that passage through the underworld vast water was a challenge. Man imagination invented a solution for this task: a boat, a solar barque in Egypt, which could magically cross the underworld precarious waters. Failure to cross the underworld waters meant that the souls will sail into oblivion an idea no person can accept. In Egyptian culture, the boat had to cross the Nile to the “Beautiful West” accompanied by a ferryman named “Who Sees Behind Him” as cited in the Pyramid Texts. In Greek culture, the boat crossed the river Styx aided by the ferryman Charon.
Fig.1 shows the underworld ship rock art from the Negev Desert, Egypt, and Scandinavia. Flipped ship signifying a journey in the underworld. The ships carry the dead souls, represented by the lines which are described as “shade of a deceased”, to the underworld (Golan A. 1991). The circle in scene1 represents the sun. The souls are traveling the sun path with a wish to be resurrected the same way the sun does. The boat head in scene2 is of a bird signifying the ability to move in water and air. In scene4 a grave in a boat shape provides the soul a means to commence the afterlife journey immediately at burial time.
The Negev Desert Ship/Boat Rock Art
Compared to ship design from Egypt or Scandinavia the Negev Desert ships are very simple. Very few details decorate the scene with just enough engraved details suggesting the viewer that these are ship. The boat stingy art with one mast usually flipped vertically signifies riding the underworld. Sometimes it’s even hard to recognize that it’s a ship but its repetition in many rock art with its supporting details reveals the artist concept. It’s a ship!
The ship appears in pairs one being a night ship, the other a day ship, they are engraved either in a convoy or in parallel. From the Book of the Dead ch 151 “Thy right eye is the Solar Night Barque, thy left eye is the Solar Day Barque ” (Hartwig 2002).
Afterlife Journey, Negev Desert Rock Art
Fig.3, rock art from Negev Desert illustrates quite figuratively soul travel by ship and a bird since both are needed for the afterlife journey. The large bird with stretched wings, in blue, travels the air and the ship, in red, travels the underworld and celestial water. The souls, in black, riding the boat transfer to a bird that will steer them beyond the sun for the journey completion and resurrection.
What happens after death was a major dilemma now and of course in ancient times. No one came back, yet, from death to tell us this mysterious story. The unknown is a fertile ground for imaginative scenarios such that no one can disprove and therefore it flourishes. The mind has no boundaries even when it reaches the borders into far and unexplored situations, it then recreates a story with an accurate map for the afterlife journey as if entrenched in its memories cells. The mysterious underworld is such an unexplored place where no living mind physically visited, yet it is fully described by ancient myths and pictures in every culture.
Ballard, C. 2003 The ship as a symbol in the prehistory
Golan A. 1991. Myth and Symbol
Hartwig A. 2002 Funerary Boats and Boat Pits of the Old Kingdom
KRISTIANSEN, K. 2010. The sun journey in Indo-European mythology and Bronze Age rock art.
Kaul, F. 1998. Ships on bronzes: a study in Bronze Age religion and iconography.
Lankester, F. 2012. Predynastic & Pharaonic era Rock-Art in Egypt’s Central Eastern Desert
Radwan, A. Boats in the Underworld of ancient Egypt and other cultures
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Yehuda Rotblum 2019